Wine Index

Napa Valley,Sonoma, San Francisco North Bay, Ca. , California, USA, Angwin, St Helena, Calistoga, Yountville, Napa, Sonoma, Oakville, Rutherford, California, County Wineries Calistoga California
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Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes. The fermentation can be done with this natural yeast, but since this can give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present, cultured yeast is often added to the must.

During the primary fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply, producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the taste of the end product, as well as the speed of the fermentation. For red wines, the temperature is typically 22 to 25 C, and for white wines 15 to 18 C. For every gram of sugar that is converted, about half a gram of alcohol is produced, so to achieve a 12% alcohol concentration, the must should contain about 24% sugars. The sugar percentage of the must is calculated from the measured density, the must weight, with the help of a saccharometer. If the sugar content of the grapes is too low to obtain the desired alcohol percentage, sugar can be added (chaptalization). In commercial winemaking, chaptalization is subject to local regulations.

During or after the alcoholic fermentation, malolactic fermentation can also take place, during which specific strains of bacteria convert malic acid into the milder lactic acid. This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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Jones Family Winery
PO Box 352, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-0467 email
Kornell Cellars
1091 Larkmead Ln
Calistoga, CA 94515-9618
942-0859
Larkmead Vineyards
1145 Larkmead Ln, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-6605
Madrigal Vineyards
3718 North St. Helena Hwy. Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-6577 email
Napa Valley Vintners Assn.
1091 Larkmead Ln, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-9775 email
Reverie Vineyard & Winery
1520 Diamond Mountain Rd, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-6800
Richard L Graeser Winery
255 Petrified Forest Rd, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-4437
Robert Pecota Winery
3299 Bennett Ln, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-6625
Schramsberg Vineyards
1400 Schramsberg Rd, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-4558 email
Shypoke Cellars
4170 Saint Helena Hwy, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-0420
Spring Mountain Vineyard
2805 Spring Mountain Rd, St Helena, CA 94574 707 967-4188
Sterling Vineyards
1111 Dunaweal Ln, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-3344 email
Hours Daily 13:00 Am - 4:30 PM
Stonegate Winery
1183 Dunaweal Lane, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-6500
Hours Daily 10:30 Am - 4:30 PM
Stoneheath Winery
1183 Dunaweal Ln, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-6500 email
Storybook Mountain Winery
3835 State Highway 128, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-5310
Straus Vineyards
315 Franz Valley School Rd, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-1238
Vigil Vineyard Winery
3340 State Highway 128, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-2900
Villa Amorosa
4005 Saint Helena Hwy, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-8200
Villa Andriana Winery
1171 Tubbs Lane, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-5508 email
Hours Daily 10:30 Am - 4:00 PM
Von Strasser Winery
1510 Diamond Mountain Rd, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-0930
Wermuth Winery
3942 Silverado Trl, Calistoga, CA 94515 707 942-5924
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